Few books have wedged my position on quality psychologically and conduct. A itty-bitty complete a time period ago I read a textbook by Dr. Martin Seligman called, "Learned Optimism". Seligman was intrigued by an dip into he had witnessed involving dogs who exhibited paradoxical behaviors. His inquisitiveness led him to bring into being the "Shuttle box" experimentation. Without going into excellent detail, the two-phased dip into went on these lines.
Phase 1: 'Group A' dogs were singly placed into a support beside a bar in face of them. Each dog was then administered a moderate electroconvulsive therapy sporadically. After any time, the dogs realised that by tapping the bar, the shocks would restrict. The dip into was persistent next to a second knot of dogs (Group B) but beside one excessive exception, nearby was no bar provided to foil the shocks.